First Among Equals with Teresa Bejan - Lecture 2/3: True Levelling
On March 20, 21, and 22, 2023, Princeton University’s James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions hosted Teresa Bejan, Professor of Political Theory and a Fellow of Oriel College at the University of Oxford, to deliver the annual Charles E. Test, M.D. '37 Distinguished Lectures.
As a defining premise of modern political thought, equality often commands more allegiance than investigation. Yet the idea that human beings are equal is an ancient one, with deep roots in Roman Law and Christianity. This three-lecture series explores how and why, in 17th-century England, this long-standing idea began to have profound political consequences—if not all of the consequences modern egalitarians expect.
Tuesday, March 21st - Lecture Two of Three: Levelling
This lecture explores the idea of “levelling” in early modern England. While the so-called “Levellers” rejected the label, other groups embraced it. For instance, the Diggers pursued equality by reclaiming common land, while the early Quakers launched a systematic campaign of social disrespect. These fascinating and forgotten visions of equality challenge modern expectations of what a society of equals should look like.
Teresa M. Bejan is Professor of Political Theory and Fellow of Oriel College at the University of Oxford. Professor Bejan’s research brings historical perspectives to bear on questions in contemporary political theory. She has written extensively on themes of free speech, civility, tolerance, and equality in historical contexts ranging from ancient Athens to 20th-century analytic political philosophy. In 2021, Professor Bejan was awarded the Philip Leverhulme Prize in Politics, which celebrates early career researchers who have already achieved international recognition and have exceptional future promise.
Her first book, Mere Civility: Disagreement and the Limits of Toleration (2017, paperback 2019), examined contemporary calls for civility in light of 17th-century debates about religious toleration. It defended an ideal of ‘mere civility’ consistent with American free speech fundamentalism derived from Roger Williams, the founder of Rhode Island. Her current book manuscript, entitled First Among Equals, explores the fascinating but forgotten history of equality before modern egalitarianism. Her next major research project is the Clarendon edition of John Locke’s Letters on Toleration.
Professor Bejan has also published peer-reviewed articles in the American Political Science Review, American Journal of Political Science, Journal of Politics, British Journal of Political Science, Political Theory, History of Political Thought, and more. Her Special Forum on “The Historical Rawls” (co-edited with Sophie Smith and Annette Zimmermann) was published in 2021 in the journal Modern Intellectual History. Alongside her academic work, Professor Bejan writes regularly for popular venues, including The New York Times, The Atlantic, and The Washington Post.